Make your own free website on Tripod.com

R

Rhinophyma | Rodent ulcers (go to basal cell cancer) | Rosacea | Rubella

RHINOPHYMA

Rhinophyma is the irregular, bulbous enlargement of the nose that is usually seen in individuals with rosacea.

    Cause

  • Excessive growth of the sebaceous (oil) glands and nose tissue.

    Symptoms

  • Red, craggy enlargement of the nose.
  • Oiliness of the nose.
  • The dilated blood vessels on the nose are often dilated (telangiectasia).
  • Other symptoms of rosacea may be present.

    What you can do

  • Control the symptoms of rosacea.
  • Consult a doctor to have the excess tissue removed.

    What the doctor may do

  • Remove the excess tissue using electrosurgery, dermabrasion or the carbon dioxide laser.
  • Treat underlying rosacea.

TOP

ROSACEA

Rosacea or acne rosacea affects the central portion of the face and is characterised by red papules (pimply bumps), pustules (pusheads), persistent redness, telangiectasias (broken veins) and a tendency to flush. It usually occurs in middle aged adults, especially fair-skinned individuals of Celtic origin. Rosacea affects women more commonly but men more severely.

    Causes
    The cause of rosacea is uncertain. However, the following factors may aggravate or predispose to it:

  • Consumption of alcohol, hot fluids and spicy foods such as curries.
  • Exposure to extreme cold, hot baths, showers and saunas.
  • Exposure to the sun, cold and wind.
  • Vigorous exercise.
  • Vasodilating drugs (drugs that open out the blood vessels so as to improve the circulation or reduce blood pressure).
  • In appropriate use of strong topical steroids on the face.
  • Menopause.
  • Stress.
  • Inheritance and race. Rosacea is more common among family members and in people of Celtic descent.

    Symptoms

  • Flushed face, ruddy complexion and telangiectasias (broken veins).
  • Red papules (pimple-like bumps) and pustules (pusheads).
  • Affects symmetrical areas on the cheeks, forehead, nose and/or chin.
  • Tendency to flush after taking hot fluids, spicy foods and alcohol.
     
      Acne rosacea.
    Click on image for larger view
     
    Complications
  • Bulbous enlargement of the nose known as rhinophyma which is more common in men.
  • Eye irritation.

    What you can do

  • You should consult a doctor.
  • Avoid the aggravating factors.
  • Use mild cleansers.
  • Avoid alcohol containing skincare products, scrubs and other harsh products.
  • Use sunscreens when prolonged exposure to the sun is anticipated.
  • Use cosmetics to hide the ruddy complexion.
     
    What the doctor may do
  • Prescribe oral antibiotics such as tetracycline and erythromycin.
  • Prescribe topical metronidazole (an antibiotic).
  • Prescribe isotretinoin (vitamin A acid) for resistant or severe cases.
  • Treat the telangiectasias or rhinophyma.
Rosacea often recurs after stopping treatment so longterm treatment may be necessary.

TOP

RUBELLA

Rubella or German measles is a generally mild viral infection which lasts around 3 days. Hence, it has also been called the "3 day measles". Rubella is now much less common because of routine immunisation.

    Cause

  • Rubella virus. Infection is transmitted by droplet infection and the incubation period is 16 - 18 days.

    Symptoms

  • Mild fever, sorethroat or runny nose.
  • Pink spots appearing on the face and spreading to the body and extremities. The rash appears after the fever has subsided and clears by the third day without desquamation or scaling (cf., measles).
  • Swollen lymph glands behind the ears and on the sides of the neck towards the back.

    Complications

  • Rubella during the first 3 months of pregnancy may result in severe birth defects such as blindness, deafness and heart malformations.
  • Arthritis (joint inflammation) which is more common in adults.

    What you can do

  • You should consult a doctor.
  • Have plenty of rest and take plenty of fluids.
  • Take fever medicines.
  • Avoid contact with pregnant women.

    Prevention

  • Rubella can be prevented by vaccination. This is normally given at 1 - 2 years of age or at age 12 or 3 months before pregnancy if non-immune.

    What the doctor may do

  • Confirm the diagnosis.
  • Give symptomatic treatment or treat the complications.

TOP